*This was originally tagged with 'literature,' so I answered the question from a literary perspective.
Culture is always an important consideration when reading literature; an author or poet's culture can shape and inform their perspectives, values, knowledge, and religious beliefs. When I think of the word 'culture,' I automatically think of the environment and conditions in which the person was raised as well. Culture can also have economic implications as well; an author raised in poverty would have a much different perspective than one from a wealthy background.
When considering the culture of a piece of literature, also take time to think about the climate, lifestyle, and upbringing of the author. Does the work strictly reflect the views of the author's culture, or does it go beyond it cultural framework to address more universal perceptions?