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For a gene to work, the genetic instructions in the DNA molecule must be decoded. The first step is to copy the DNAsequence into RNA. There are three kinds of RNA: Messenger RNA, Ribosomal RNA (proteins are made on ribosomes), and Transfer RNA.
DNA is located in the Nucleus. It is a long strand of sugars and phosphates that is wound around each other in the form of a double-helix. The DNA contains the code for the animal/plant/cell life processes and structures. RNA is used to transfer, transcribe, and build the proteins that are used to make more DNA.
The messenger RNA moves into the cytoplams and attaches to a ribosome. As each codon of the Messenger RNA moves through the ribosome, the proper amino acid is brought into the ribosome by transfer RNA. The ribosome joins together each amino acid. In this way the protein chain grows. When the ribosome reaches a stop codon, it releases the newly formed polypeptide and the process of translation is complete.
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