The second most popular novel after Don Quijote de La Mancha, and one of the most controversial novels in Spanish literature, La Familia de Pascual Duarteby Camilo Jose Cela was written in 1942. This was a year marked by the ruling of the so-called "Generalisimo" Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo, also known as Francisco Franco.
Francisco Franco was an authoritarian fascist. After the overthrow of the Spanish monarchy in 1931 he ruled as the de facto un-crowned King. The problem was that his government oppressed everyone who belonged to the opposition. Therefore, his government was one of fear and tension characterized by the consistent presence of the Civil Guard everywhere. After Franco's death the monarchy was renewed, and the current King Juan Carlos took over as its ruler.
La Familia de Pascual Duarte is a novel that reflects the general consciousness of the time. It presents violence as a way to solve problems. Its main themes include oppression, war, abuse, and injustice. It basically opens a window in to the society of the time and presents it under the reality of its misery. This is why it caused such an uproar and was banned for years after it was written.