The answers above detail some of the ways in which the Victorian era is reflected—and diffracted—through the lens that is Wonderland. The idea of Wonderland as a surreal reflection of real life is made still more explicit in the sequel, Through the Looking-glass, but we see this idea clearly in the first novel too.
There are two significant figures in Wonderland, not yet mentioned by other educators, which speak to key Victorian archetypes: these are the Caterpillar and the White Rabbit. The Caterpillar, with his louche philosophy, his hookah, and his lazily cryptic utterances, is a parody of the so-called "aesthete": in around the 1860s, this effete figure—borrowing philosophies from the East, visiting Turkish bathhouse,s and smoking opium—began to emerge in Victorian society, and also to be parodied in the newspapers. The ultimate end of this aesthetic trend lay in the philosophies of Oscar Wilde, via Walter Pater: the Caterpillar would have been recognized as an illustration of this archetype.
The White Rabbit, secondly, in his waistcoat, tie and pocket watch, continually late for something and yet unsure of what the thing may be, can be read as a depiction of the harried Victorian businessman—the business class being now emergent in a way society had never seen before—as viewed through the eyes of a child such as Alice. Where is everyone's father in such a hurry to get to? And why is he so harried at all times—unless because he feels trapped in a topsy-turvy world and is afraid of erratic authority? The novel plays with, but of course does not ultimately answer, these questions.