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When Macbeth learns of the death of Lady Macbeth he is struck by the meaningless of life. He feels our lives don't have a lasting impact on anything. He refers to life as "a walking shadow" and a "poor player that struts and frets his hour upon the stage and is heard no more". We live, but not really. We are ineffectual players (actors) who take the stage (live) for a brief while but whose power and influence dies when our hour (lifetime) is done. Macbeth has no hope for a happy afterlife, and he realizes, with Lady Macbeth's death, how empty all of their moments truly were. Life is a trivial, senseless story: "... a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing."
Out, out brief candle.
Perhaps it's Macbeth's way of coping with his wife's death, perhaps it's his way of coping with the knowledge that he's in a lot of trouble, perhaps it really is how he feels. Either way, Macbeth expresses a sentiment that life is short and then you die. I would venture a guess and say that life is meaningful for him which is why he killed Duncan in the first place. If these thoughts are really how he feels, he probably felt like he had to expedite his route to the throne in order to get the most out of it before his own death.
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