How does Les Misérables reflect the French Revolutions of 1830 and 1848?
The Revolution of 1830 began as a response to the ordinances of Charles X dissolving Parliament, limiting voting rights, and abolishing freedom of the press. This resulted in forcing Charles X out of power and replacing him with Louis Philippe, the citizen king who had fought in the Revolution. This helped the middle class of France, but it didn't help the poor and the working class. In 1832, an uprising began to get rid of Louis Philippe. It never had the support it needed, and the government was able to put down the rebellion. It wasn't until 1848 that a successful uprising got rid of Louis Philippe. A bloody struggle between the working class and the middle class resulted in establishing the Second Republic, with Louis Napoleon as president. In 1851, the president took over France in a military takeover and became dictator. With industrialization, employment was high, and the poor lost the menial jobs they had. Hugo, the author, bases his book on this period of time.