How does Jem change from the beginning of the novel of "To Kill a Mockingbird" to the end of the novel and why are these changes significant?

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Jem is ten when the novel begins, and as such is a fairly typical ten year old boy who refuses to be seen with his main playmate, and little sister when school begins.  Jem, Scout and Dill conceive the idea of trying to make Boo Radley come out, and the three of them are enchanted when someone begins leaving them little presents in the crook of a tree near the Radley home.  Jem's entrance into adolescence coincides with the Tom Robinson trial, where he learns some unpleasant lessons about the power of hatred and intolerance. Jem's inconsistent and moody behavior mirrors the typical adolescent as the book proceeds toward its conclusion; he is at times sullen, angry, hateful, kind, gentle, and protective.  However, these mood changes can be ascribed to his heartbreak over the outcome of the Robinson trial as well as typical adoleslescent angst.  These changes in Jem (as well as his sister) make "Mockingbird" a coming-of-age story all the more powerful because of the historical accuracy of the setting and storyline. 

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