How does James Baldwin reveal the socioeconomics of romantic love and/or sexual desire in his novel Giovanni's Room? How do class, ethnicity, national identity, and/or immigration status influence the dynamics of interpersonal exchange?
James Baldwin novel Giovanni's Room addresses issues of gender identity and racial discrimination through the story of a bisexual young man, David. In many ways this is a bildungsroman, a novel of the coming of age of a young man and his process of self-discovery, of realizing that moving into a new social milieu is as much a futile attempt to deny his identity as a path to identity:
People can't, unhappily, invent their mooring posts, their lovers and their friends, anymore than they can invent their parents. Life gives these and also takes them away and the great difficulty is to say Yes to life.
The start of David's journey to sexual identity involves migration and national identity. Before the novel starts, David lived a heteronormative or "cisgendered" life as a heterosexual male in the United States. Leaving his country and national identity to travel allows him to explore new sexual identities as well as new cultural settings. His immersion in the gay social milieu of Paris gives him freedom to explore his own cultural role.
What makes this novel paradoxical and disturbing is the role of money and class in David's participation in the LBGT community. At first, his entry into the gay community is facilitated by an older Belgian American businessman named Jacques, who provides him with money. Far from finding the freedom to explore his own identity, David is just as constrained by his economic relationship to Jacques as he was by traditional gender roles in heteronormative society. Even in his relationship to Giovanni, grounded in genuine attraction, the economic imperative of sharing the room acts as a constraint.
Giovanni himself is an outsider, an immigrant to France, whose room both resists and symbolizes both his ties to his homeland and his exile from it, as well as the precariousness of his life as an immigrant.
In this novel, migration, ethnicity, and queerness all function to define people as outsiders, but also cause them to form both intimate and communal relationships within their own subcultures.