How does the Indian Constitution protect the rights of the underrepresented?
I would say that the section of the Indian Constitution devoted to the fundamental rights of all Indians helps to speak for the underrepresented. Individuals who lack a substantive voice in the political discussion find some level of protection in this portion of the governing document. Consider the vociferous demands for individual rights and civil rights found in this section. One such right that is embedded in the Indian Constitution is the right to equality. In this section, the practice of untouchability and the seedy underbelly of the caste system is abolished. At the same time, the Right to Equality demands that affirmative action measures to rectify that which has been wrong are included, suggesting that those previously seen as undervalued and underrepresented can be included in the social and political makeup. Another similar right is the Right to be free from exploitation. In response to child labor, as well as other forms of human trafficking that exploit the more vulnerable, the Indian Constitution speaks to abolishing this condition. The right to be free from human exploitation demands that children not be employed in hazardous conditions of work. I think that these are ways in which the Indian Constitution speaks to the rights of the underprivileged and the underrepresented in Indian society.
Although the Indian Constitution does not explicitly define the term underprivileged or minority groups, it applies the numerical test to determine people falling under the category in different circumstances.
The Constitution describes the rights and freedoms of minority or vulnerable groups with the key underpinning of equality within the society.
India is recognized as a secular state, meaning all religions are seen as equals with no preference under the law.
Being a multicultural nation, members of the different cultures, including those belonging to minority cultures, have the right to preserve and practice their culture. Primary education is delivered in students' mother tongues despite Hindi being the official language.
The issue of the caste system and other avenues of discrimination such as, religion, race, and language have been addressed under Article 29 of India’s Constitution, which prohibits discrimination within the society.