How does Ender change from the beginning of the novel to the end?  

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In the beginning of the novel, Ender is just a “third”—the socially undesirable third child in the extreme intelligent Wiggins family.  He is the victim of his older brother’s violence, and has just been disconnected from a neurological device that has allowed the government to monitor his behavior, especially his eligibility to enter the special military training academy.  In the middle of the novel, he is excelling at those decision-making and creative-solution skills necessary to become an outstanding leader of the upcoming fight against the “buggers”.  He is finding both a “vicious” streak (which made him fear that he was like his brother Peter), and a desire to rebel against his handlers.  At the end of the novel, he has become confident in all these area, and, when he it “tricked” into beating the Buggers, he realizes that his “game” is to “end” the violent solutions that humanity has been gravitating toward in the history of their encounters with “alien” societies (the thematic core of the book); when he finds and salvages the last remaining colony of nascent buggers, we see the final transformation of Ender’s character.

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