How does Diamond explain the fact that domesticable American apples and grapes were not domesticated until the arrival of Europeans?

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I do not remember anything about grapes, but the answer to this as far as apples go can be found at the very end of Chapter 8.  What Diamond argues is that apples are generally very hard to cultivate and domesticate.  He says that Native Americans simply did not have...

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I do not remember anything about grapes, but the answer to this as far as apples go can be found at the very end of Chapter 8.  What Diamond argues is that apples are generally very hard to cultivate and domesticate.  He says that Native Americans simply did not have time to learn how to domesticate them.

Diamond points out that apples really need to be propagated by grafting.  This is hard to do and is a pretty sophisticated technique.  He argues that farmers in Eurasia took about 8,000 years to learn how to domesticate apples (after they had started food production).  He notes that food production in North America did not start until about 2500 BC.  If Native Americans progressed at the same rate as the Eurasian farmers, they should not have figured out apples until 5500 AD...

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