How does Claudius intend to celebrate Hamlet staying in Denmark? The only thing that confused me about this question from Hamlet is that i believed the celebration (Act 1, Scene 2) to be for the marriage of Claudius and Gertrude; not for Hamlet staying.

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In act 1, scene 2, Claudius addresses his court and comments on his mixed feelings of happiness and grief. While he is happy to celebrate his recent marriage to Gertrude, he is apparently unhappy about his brother's tragic death. After Claudius gives Laertes permission to return to France and attend school, he encourages Hamlet to cheer up and stop mourning his father's death. Claudius is aware that he is in a precarious position after usurping the throne by assassinating his brother and wants everything in his court to appear stable and upright. Claudius also understands Gertrude's love for her son and does not want Prince Hamlet leaving the country, where he can organize forces and stir up a rebellion. When Claudius requests that Hamlet stay in Denmark instead of returning to Wittenberg, Hamlet agrees, which is good news for Claudius. Claudius's plan is coming together and he is happy that Hamlet agrees to stay in the country, which is why he says,

Why, ’tis a loving and a fair reply. Be as ourself in Denmark.—Madam, come. This gentle and unforced accord of Hamlet Sits smiling to my heart, in grace whereof No jocund health that Denmark drinks today But the great cannon to the clouds shall tell, And the king’s rouse the heavens shall bruit again, Respeaking earthly thunder. (Shakespeare, 1.2.121-128)

While Claudius is indeed celebrating his marriage to Gertrude, he is also happy that Hamlet chose to remain in Denmark, where he can keep an eye on him and make sure that he does not have any plans of causing a rebellion. Claudius also plans on celebrating by drinking copious amounts of alcohol with the royal court.

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Though much of Claudius' speech is about their marriage and how they've now enjoyed the publicity of their vows and their love, his final response in the scene is to Hamlet and to indicate their plans to celebrate his agreement to stay in Denmark rather than to return to Denmark:

Why, 'tis a loving and a fair reply.
Be as ourself in Denmark. Madam, come.(125)
This gentle and unforced accord of Hamlet
Sits smiling to my heart; in grace whereof,
No jocund health that Denmark drinks today
But the great cannon to the clouds shall tell,
And the King's rouse the heaven shall bruit again,(130)
Re-speaking earthly thunder. Come away.

Claudius decides that this reply for which they wished will lead to a celebration, so the cannons will be fired and the King's drinking or celebration will echo the cannon in noise and in spirit.

So though I can understand the idea that the celebration is for his wedding to Gertrude, in these lines Claudius explains that they will be celebrating Hamlet's decisions to stay with them in Denmark.

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