How does Bradbury's use of literary devices such as symbolism, allusions, satire, and irony enrich Fahrenheit 451?
All of these devices offer several levels of meaning in the novel. Bradbury is known for his descriptive style, particularly his adept use of figurative language. Consider just the opening paragraph of the novel, with figurative language in bold:
It was a special pleasure to see things eaten, to see things blackened and changed. With the brass nozzle in his fists, with this great python spitting its venomous kerosene upon the world, the blood pounded in his head, and his hands were the hands of some amazing conductor playing all the symphonies of blazing and burning to bring down the tatters and charcoal ruins of history. With his symbolic helmet numbered 451 on his stolid head, and his eyes all orange flame with the thought of what came next, he flicked the igniter and the house jumped up in a gorging fire that burned the evening sky red and yellow and black. He strode in a swarm of fireflies.
That is a power-packed paragraph! This wonderfully descriptive style is one reason this novel is such a staple in classrooms across the nation. Another reason is Bradbury's use of symbolism. The various symbols in the novel add depth and meaning to the plot. Otherwise, this novel would be just a warning of a possible future. Yet in Bradbury's hands, this becomes an allegory of humanity, the story of human society. Some symbols in the book include fire, the salamander, and the Mechanical Hound. Fire is perhaps the most potent symbol in the novel. It is a destructive force, eradicating books and the freedom of thought that books represent. Yet later, when he is with the book people, fire becomes a sign of connection, a renewal of human relationships. The salamander connects to the fire, as the symbol of the firemen. In myth, the salamander is a lizard that breathes fire, linking again to the opening paragraph of the novel itself.
Finally, the Mechanical Hound represents the disconnect between humans and technology. As society has become increasingly mechanized, even the machines that human hands have built have turned against them. When the Mechanical Hound pursuing Montag is destroyed, another one is sent in its place, suggesting that technology used destructively cannot be easily demolished.
Thus, Bradbury's techniques offer nuance and shades of meaning to the novel. Without this style, the book would become a good science fiction story, but not a classic of science fiction literature (or any genre).