How does Antony use rhetorical strategies (see below), figurative language and tonal shifts on effectiveness of the speech in the funeral speech in Julius Caesar. SPECIFICALLY:1. rhetorical strategies (logos, ethos and pathos) 2. figurative language (repetition) 3. tonal shifts on effectiveness of the speech

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Arguably one of the most famous speeches in literature, Marc Antony's eulogy demonstrates strong rhetorical prowess, as Antony convinces the crowd to turn against Brutus and the conspirators. Antony does so masterfully, even while adhering to Brutus's guidelines. In the process, he manipulates the crowd, despite (initially) pretending to sympathize...

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Arguably one of the most famous speeches in literature, Marc Antony's eulogy demonstrates strong rhetorical prowess, as Antony convinces the crowd to turn against Brutus and the conspirators. Antony does so masterfully, even while adhering to Brutus's guidelines. In the process, he manipulates the crowd, despite (initially) pretending to sympathize with the conspirators. Throughout the eulogy, Antony employs emotional appeals, repetition, and tonal shifts to achieve his desired result.

Antony establishes his own credibility (ethos) by projecting a false sense of humility. He claims that he is not a very persuasive speaker, lulling the audience into believing that he will not trick them. Antony appeals to pathos as he cites several instances of Caesar's excellent leadership and concludes with the reading of the will. Each example serves to counteract Brutus's claim that Caesar was a dangerous tyrant.

Antony employs repetition to undermine Brutus's character, repeating the phrase, "Brutus is an honorable man." At first, Antony appears conflicted: Was Caesar a good leader, or a foe? Is it possible to reconcile the facts to "honorable" Brutus's interpretation of Caesar?

As Antony continues to repeat the phrase, however, the words becomes almost mocking. They begin to take on the opposite meaning. Clearly, since Brutus and Caesar cannot both be honorable, Brutus is the dishonorable man.

Considered from start to finish, Antony's tonal shift is almost humorous. He begins the speech promising "to bury Caesar, not to praise him." By speech's end, Antony is praising Caesar strongly. The shift happens rather subtly. It starts with the repetition, as Antony begins to demonstrate that Brutus is not an honorable man. More markedly, the shift occurs when Antony begins telling the Romans about Caesar's will. After feigning reluctance to read it, Antony reveals Caesar's generous donation to the people. At this point, he speaks passionately on behalf of his deceased leader, and the people disperse to wreak vengeance on the conspirators.

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There are so many rhetorical moves that Antony uses to win over the crowd. In light of this, I will only mention a few.

First, Antony downplays his own speech. This is a good strategy, because he wants to exceed the crowd's expectations and at the same time put more pressure on Brutus's speech. Moreover, he wants the people to know that his speech is not polished as if he were trying to trick the people. Antony is just a plain speaker of truth. [Ethos]

Second, Antony calls Brutus and Cassius "honorable" many times. In this way, he calls into question their honor. In other words, did they act honorably? Moreover, he calls the people not to mutiny. The fact that he mentions this suggests that it is an option. Is he planting thoughts? I think so. [Repetition.]

Third, he talks about Caesar's ambition, which was seen as dangerous in the Roman world from a historical point of view. However, he conflates this with generosity and love. The suggestion inferred is that Caesar might have been ambitious to benefit Rome. Moreover, did he not refuse a crown three times? [Tonal shift.]

All of these points make Antony's speech masterful.

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