How does Alice show herself to be the heroine in the book?
The main problem or conflict in this story is that a very young girl is lost and wants to find her way home. In Hollywood this might be called a "survival flick." Although the story is humorous, the situation is serious, because if Alice doesn't find her way home she will probably die. The same situation occurs in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Both Alice and Dorothy have to be exceptionally courageous little girls because they encounter all sorts of strange characters and have to cope with dangers. In Alice in Wonderland, the Queen of Hearts gives orders to chop off Alice's head. There could hardly be a greater danger than that for anyone of any age. But Alice keeps her poise and realizes that the Queen and all the others are nothing but a pack of cards. Dorothy in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is not physically aggressive, but she is poised and determined, even when dealing with the wicked witch. Both little girls survive all sorts of adventures and finally find their ways home, thanks to their courage, determination, self-reliance, and good sense.
Alice is the protagonist of Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll, meaning that she is the most important character. She is also what literary critics describe as a "viewpoint character", meaning that we see the events of the novel through her eyes and from her point of view. technically, this is accomplished through third person limited narration.
Alice is in many ways more a mock heroic than heroic figure, She is a very admirable young girl, brave, sensible, intelligent, curious and generally ethical (she always tries to do the right thing), and quite mature for her age.