Learning the periodic table really takes time. But this should not worry you; there are tips on how to master the periodic table in a small span of time. Currently there are 118 known element that exists but not all are stable or "normally" present, some are synthetically made. First let us organize the tips on how to learn the course easily.
1. Get yourself a periodic table
2. Understand the brief history (not so much, but a bit on how they came up with the positions of elements in the table).
3. Be familiarized with the elements including their atomic number and atomic weights (doesn't have for you to memorize everything but at least you have an idea).
4. Illustrate the different classification or groupings of different elements. Elements in the periodic table are "periodically" arranged based on the similarity of their characteristics.
phases (solid, liquid and gaseous elements at normal . conditions)
blocks (s, p, d, f block)
types (metal, metalloids or non-metals)
5. Now go deeper with each of the elements in the periodic table. Your teacher will guide you as you learn them.
**Some elements are classified as unknown while they undergo series of tests. This is true for newly discovered elements.