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The term carbohydrate also implies its chemical makeup which is carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates can be recognized because the hydrogen to oxygen ratio in their molecules is 2:1. These compounds are organic and provide living things with energy. One can recognize a sugar molecule by its name, which ends in the suffix ose. Two examples include glucose--a molecule used in cellular respiration to yield A.T.P. and fructose, the sugar found in fruit. Both glucose and fructose are called monomers, made of a single sugar molecule and are considered simple sugars. When two sugar molecules are joined together chemically, a disaccharide forms. For example, table sugar or sucrose is a disaccharide. When many sugars are joined in a long chain, this is known as a polysaccharide. Starch and glycogen are examples of polysaccharides. Starch is a molecule that contains stored energy in plants and glycogen is stored energy found in animals. Cellulose, the material found inside cell walls, is another important carbohydrate.
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