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The advent of the Internet and the ability to conduct online searches for research material added a previously unknown component to the process of foot- or end-noting text. That added component involves the attachment, when appropriate, of URL links. Additionally, while the Chicago Manual of Style remains the predominant guide to the procedures to be used in writing projects, different academic institutions may have requirements or exceptions unique to those institutions, and it is up to the individual student to familiarize him- or herself with those requirements. At the end of the day, however, the most important rule is that of consistency: Once a student selects a particular method of writing footnotes, he or she must be consistent in using that method throughout the entirety of the project.
Now, when citing Title IX, it is important to keep in mind exactly what is “Title IX.” The laws of the United States of America are divided according to broad categories, with each category, or volume, titled numerically with the designation of United States (or, U.S.) Code. Title XX of the U.S. Code (commonly cited as “20 U.S.C.”) includes those federal laws pertaining to the Department of Education. Chapter 39 of that title deals with equal opportunities within the area of education. It would be cited as 20 U.S.C. ch. 39. “Title IX,” in the context of nondiscrimination in education on the basis of gender, refers to the section of the bill, Higher Education Amendments of 1972, that was passed into law and designated Public Law (P.L.) 92-318. Coming now to a 2005 ruling by the United States Supreme Court reaffirming the constitutionality of Public Law 92-318, known as Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education, the proper citation for the “Title IX ruling” would be: Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education, 544 U.S. 167 (2005). As noted, in today’s ‘electronic format world,’ it may be required or suggested that the appropriate URL link be provided. This would follow immediately the citation as follows: Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education, 544 U.S. 167 (2005) [http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/02-1672.ZS.html].
To reiterate, then, Title IX was the section of a bill passed by Congress and signed into law that amended Title XX of the U.S. Code, the section of federal law pertaining to education. The U.S. Supreme Court, in Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education, reaffirmed that the 1972 legislation was constitutional.
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