How do you find the groups on the periodic table?

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freemihai | College Teacher | (Level 2) Adjunct Educator

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The vertical columns of periodic table are called groups. The elements in a group have the same number of electrons in the outer shell. The chemical bonds with other elements involve the electrons found in the outer shell. The number of a group is usually equal to the number of valence electrons. The groups in the periodic table are group 0, group 1, group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5, group 7, group 8.

The elements in group 0 are gaseous and they are called noble gases. The elements in group 0 are chemically inert because they have full outer electron orbitals. The elements in group 0 are helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon.

Every element in group 1 has one electron in its outer orbital. Each element in group 1 is chemically reactive because it has the inclination to lose the electron found in outer shell, to form one positively charged ion with a stable electronic configuration. The group 1 is divided in alkali metals sub-group 1a and transition metals sub-group 1b. The elements in alkali metals sub-group 1a are lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, francium. The elements in transition metals sub-group 1b are copper, silver, and gold.

Hydrogen belongs to alkali sub-group because it has one electron in its outer electronic orbital.

Every element in group 2 has two electrons in its outer orbital. Each element in group 2 is chemically reactive because it has the inclination to lose the electrons found in outer shell, to form two positively charged ions with a stable electronic configuration. The group 2 is divided in  alkaline earth metals sub-group 2a and transition metals sub-group 2b. The elements in alkaline earth metals sub-group 2a are beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, radium. The elements in transition metals sub-group 2b are zinc, cadmium, and and mercury.

Every element in group 3 has three electrons in its outer orbital. Each element in group 3 is chemically reactive because it has the inclination to lose the electrons found in outer shell, to form three positively charged ions with a stable electronic configuration. The group 3 is divided in  transition metals sub-group 3a and main elements sub-group 3b. The elements in transition sub-group 3a arescandium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praeseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, lutecium, actinium, plutonium, aericium, curium, and berkelium. The elements in main metals sub-group 3b are boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium.

Every element in group 4 has four electrons in its outer orbital. Each element in group 4 is chemically reactive because it has the inclination to share the electrons found in outer shell, to form covalent compounds with a stable electronic configuration. The group 4 is divided in  transition metals sub-group 4a and main elements sub-group 4b. The elements in transition sub-group 4a titanium, zirconium, hafnium, and thorium. The elements in main metals sub-group 4b are carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead.

Every element in group 5 has five electrons in its outer orbital. Each element in group 5 is chemically reactive because it has the inclination to gain three more electrons, to form negatively charged ions with a stable electronic configuration. The group 5 is divided in  transition metals sub-group 5a and main elements sub-group 5b. The elements in transition sub-group 5a vanadium, niobium, tantalum, and protactinium. The elements in main metals sub-group 5b are nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth.

Every element in group 6 has six electrons in its outer orbital. Each element in group 6 is chemically reactive because it has the inclination to gain two more electrons, to form negatively charged ions with a stable electronic configuration. The group 6 is divided in  transition metals sub-group 6a and main elements sub-group 6b. The elements in transition sub-group 6a chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and uranium. The elements in main metals sub-group 6b are oxygen, sulphur, sellenium, tellurium, and polonium.

Every element in group 7 has seven electrons in its outer orbital. Each element in group 7 is chemically reactive because it has the inclination to gain one more electrons, to form one negatively charged ion with a stable electronic configuration. The group 7 is divided in  transition metals sub-group 7a and main elements sub-group 7b. The elements in transition sub-group 7a manganese, technetium, and rhenium. The elements in main metals sub-group 7b are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.

The elements in group 8 have properties of metals. These elements are iron, cobalt nickel, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum.

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