There are many varieties of potatoes that allow them to be grown almost anywhere. Before, they were usually only grown in cooler climates.
They prefer slightly acidic soil with a pH less than 6. It is good to get seeds at a actual seed store and not use potatoes from a grocery store because those potatoes have been sprayed with chemicals such as pesticides and may not grow as well. The eye of the potato is cut off and planted about 5 inches deep. Some of the flesh of the potato can be left on so so it has some energy to begin growing.
Potatoes are ready when most of the tops of the plants have withered. They can stay in the ground for an additional month or so. Potatoes need to be stored in a dark, dry place.
Potatoes are usually one of the earliest vegtables planted in the garden. To grow potatos you need moist soil. Most soils will grow potatoes but they prefer moist soil that is well drained. The soil needs to be acidic and well fertilized. Although potatos are perineal they need to be treated as if they are anuals, because you have to dig them up. Potatos are started from potato pieces, with the "eye" attached. Plant the pieces 10 to 12 inches apart, about 1 to 3 inches deep. Cover with mulch to retain moisture. You want to harvest the potatos after their vines have died.
Oh, I forgot to mention, this is for Agriculture, just incase u wanted to know.