How do they assign assignments in The Giver? In terms of how they chose who is to be what and how they ensure that there are enough people doing a certain job.

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In Jonas's highly structured society, citizens do not have the opportunity to independently make significant life decisions, such as choosing the person they will marry, deciding how many children they will have, or choosing an occupation. In regard to careers, the Committee of Elders spends a significant amount of time monitoring each child closely in order to determine their Assignment, which will be their future occupation. Each child must serve a specified number of volunteer hours working various jobs throughout the community. While the children complete their necessary volunteer hours, the Committee of Elders records their performance, skill level, aptitude, and behavior at each trade. While Lowry does not go into specifics regarding how the Committee of Elders determines what occupations need more workers, the reader is told that each Assignment corresponds to the child's skill set and interests. At the Ceremony of Twelve, each child is given their Assignment, which will be their occupation for the remainder of their life. However, Jonas is not given an Assignment like his peers and is instead "selected" to be the community's next Receiver of Memory.

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In this book, the whole society is totally controlled by the government.  The government decides, for example, when you are ready to raise a child and they decide what child you will get.  It is the same way with jobs.

The job you will have is assigned when you become a Twelve.  The Council of Elders has been watching you for the past few years.  They have been watching what you like to do in your leisure time and in your volunteer work.  They have been watching what you are good at.  They assign your job based on what they notice.

As far as getting enough people, they just have to hope that there are people with the right aptitudes for the various jobs.

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