How do Plato and Aristotle define the good?

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Plato defines "the good" as an unchanging "form" that cannot be comprehended by sight or other senses. There were other forms, like "truth" and "beauty," but the "good" was the highest of these forms. Certain things, people, concepts, and so on could have "goodness," but they could not be good in and of themselves, because people might disagree about their goodness, or, more fundamentally, they could be destroyed, by death or forgetting. So the only thing that was permanent was the form or the "idea" of goodness that could only really be comprehended by philosophers who could transcend the fleeting knowledge provided by the senses.

Aristotle understood the good in less abstract ways. He thought that the "good" was contingent on situations and the individual. What was important to him was that a person's ethical understanding informed their actions. Rather than an absolute, abstract concept, Aristotle understood "the good" to be a "good life," and actions were "good" to the extent that...

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