The original question had to be edited. One of the critical elements in terms of how individuals learn about themselves when viewing their actions through the lens of ethical perspectives is what they value. Ethical approaches reveal what individuals value above all. The incorporation of these ideas into an ethical framework helps to reveal what individuals deem as important. It is here in which individuals are able to learn about themselves when viewing their action through an ethical lens of reference.
For example, an individual who acts in a rights-based ethical paradigm values individual entitlements as more important than anything else. This becomes the lens with which they view the world and, infinitely more important, the lens they can use to evaluate themselves. Individuals who act within a utilitarian approach value the needs of the majority more than anything else.
In understanding why individuals embrace a particular ethical lens of reference, there is a greater understanding of what the individual values above all else. It is here in which there is learning not only about individual decisions, but about what the individual values or prizes above all.