In most universities, there are two primary methods of including references, APA and MLA. Most of the time, English courses require MLA citation, while courses such as psychology, sociology, and anthropology use APA. There are similarities and differences in these styles, and you will have to find out which is required for your course. I can give you a general overview of how this works. You should take note that it does not matter whether you are writing an argumentative essay or some other kind of essay. The way you provide references remains the same.
Both APA and MLA require that you give the reader a brief reference in the body of the paper. This is called "in-text citation." In-text citation is usually accomplished by placing information about the source in parentheses at the end of the sentence that relies on that source. In MLA, you need the last name of the author and you need a page number for a direct quote. In APA, you need the last name of the author, the year of publication, and a page number if you have a direct quote.
Both APA and MLA require you to give more complete information about your sources at the end of the paper. In MLA this is called the "Works Cited" page, and in APA, this is called the "References" page. In either case, each entry should have the author's name, the date of publication, the name of the article and its source, or the name of the book, the place of publication, and the name of the publisher. I have provided a few links to help you further.
Good luck to you.