How do the formal and informal amendments processes compare as expressions of popular sovereignty?

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The answer to this question is really a matter of extent. Formal amendments are actual amendments to the Constitution itself. They can be initiated by either a two-thirds vote in each house of Congress or by a convention called by two-thirds of the state legislatures. In either case, the amendment must be approved by either three-fourths of the state legislatures or by special conventions called by the same legislatures. The Congressional method has been by far the most common, and whatever the method, the fact that state legislatures are involved means that popular sovereignty is reflected to a substantial extent because state legislatures are elected directly by the people at the state level. The convention method could entail even more popular participation in some states, because they can be chosen by special direct election in the states as well. For example, many of the state conventions that ratified the Bill of Rights were composed of delegates chosen by the people....

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