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How do archaeologists "know" that a stone that they find is actually a tool?

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Basically, archaeologists know that something is a tool because they know what a tool is supposed to look like.  Archaeologists have done a lot of practicing with making stone tools of their own.  Because they have done this, they know what the distinguishing characteristics of such things are.  In particular,...

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Basically, archaeologists know that something is a tool because they know what a tool is supposed to look like.  Archaeologists have done a lot of practicing with making stone tools of their own.  Because they have done this, they know what the distinguishing characteristics of such things are.  In particular, they know what it looks like when you hit a stone with another stone to shape the first stone.  This leaves characteristic marks from the percussive blows.

By making their own stone tools, archaeologists have learned what marks are left by the intentional shaping of stone.  That is how they can tell when a stone has been shaped on purpose rather than simply having been split by natural processes.

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