How did world get the way it is in 1848
This is a very broad question, but since you tagged it with "Karl Marx," I will assume that you mean something more like "How would Karl Marx say the world got to be..." If that is what you are asking, the answer is that it got that way through a series of conflicts and resolutions.
Marx believed that there were certain stages that all civilizations go through. He believed that each stage was defined by the conflict between two types of people. Those two types of people would come in conflict and out of the conflict would come a new stage of civilization.
For example, feudalism was the stage just before the one Marx thought he was living in. In feudalism, a capitalist class arises and fights with the aristocracy. Out of this conflict comes capitalism.
So Marx said the world got to be the way it was by going through these stages.