How did the Thirty Years' War end in 1648?
The Thirty Years' War ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The major provisions of the peace agreements were:
- Switzerland and the Dutch Republic achieved independence
- Sweden received lands around the Baltic Sea
- Independence of various German states was recognized
- Calvinists granted toleration in Holy Roman Empire (a departure from the Peace of Augsburg, which only recognized Lutherans and Catholics)
- Prussia gained German lands
In general, the peace agreements represented war-weariness more than anything else. The conflict had been highly destructive, and it ushered in a period of religious tolerance, if not agreement, in Europe.