How did the Thirty Years' War end in 1648?

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The Thirty Years' War ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The major provisions of the peace agreements were:

  • Switzerland and the Dutch Republic achieved independence
  • Sweden received lands around the Baltic Sea
  • Independence of various German states was recognized
  • Calvinists granted toleration in Holy Roman Empire (a departure from the Peace of Augsburg, which only recognized Lutherans and Catholics)
  • Prussia gained German lands

In general, the peace agreements represented war-weariness more than anything else. The conflict had been highly destructive, and it ushered in a period of religious tolerance, if not agreement, in Europe.

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