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How did the Magna Carta, the Hundred Years' War, and the Black Death change European society?

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The Magna Carta was one of the first documents limiting the rights of the monarchy in medieval Europe. Later popular imaginings have pointed to the Magna Carta as the provider and protector of individual liberty in medieval England, but this is not the actual case.

The Magna Carta limited the power of the King with regard to the Barons. It protected the rights of the church and established legal protections for barons while also easing some feudal tax obligations. Both sides failed to abide by the document, leading to war. The Magna Carta was incorporated into the peace agreement. This document was important because it limited the power of a hereditary monarch and established Parliament. This had impacts on British history which, because of the power of England through much of the colonial ages, also had impacts on the rest of the world.

The Hundred Years' War gave rise to both nationalist sentiment in England and France and the rise of professional armies. Successful nations in the ancient world had relied on professional armies rather than militias because professional soldiers could be kept in shape and in training, making them superior on the battlefield. Professional soldiers could also have their equipment standardized, making battle more efficient for these soldiers.

After the fall of Rome, most medieval battles were fought with feudal armies, which were equivalent to ancient militias. The length of combat in the Hundred Years' War gave rise to professional armies in order to both improve the army and to allow serfs and other farmers to remain in the fields in order to provide food for both the army and the people. France learned the lesson of the importance of the standing army more readily than England. In addition to the standing army, military tactics and technology advanced rapidly, leading to the erosion of the importance of heavily armored knights and, by extension, to the erosion of the power of the feudal system.

Prior to the Hundred Years' War, both French and English individuals were likely to express some loyalty to their local lords and people, but this did not extend to the national entities. During the wars, the people in both countries began gaining more loyalty and feeling for their nations as opposed to just their localities.

The Black Death significantly decreased the population of Europe in a short time span. Deaths occurred among all social classes and religions. This ultimately led to more social mobility for surviving peasants because their labor was more valuable in the wake of depopulation. The loss of some of the wealthy opened new opportunities for merchants to climb the social ladder as well. On the religious side, the Black Death baffled many religious individuals and led to persecutions against Jews and Christian sects (especially among the Protestant denominations).

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All three of the events in your question contributed to the downfall of the feudal social system of Europe.  Magna Carta was written to protect the rights of citizens from tyrannical  monarchs.  It checked the power of the king and gave more influence on government to the nobles.  This weakened the position of kings and emboldened the noble class.  The 100 Year's War introduced different technologies to warfare that undermined the importance of knights in the feudal system.  The 100 Year's War also further weakened the power of the king as people started to look for parliaments to have more influence on government, especially in England.  The Bubonic Plague had a devastating effect on all classes in the feudal system.  Because death did not discriminate, many powerful manor lords died and their estates were increasingly left behind.  Additionally, the plague had depleted the population of serfs and created a labor shortage.  This gave the lower classes more bargaining power and better wages.  All three of these events greatly diminished the system of feudalism and led to more representative forms of government.  

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