How did the Sumerians, Egyptians, and Hebrews differ in how they related to their gods?

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The Sumerian and Babylonian deities were closely associated with specific natural forces. For example, Anu, who was more or less the Sumerian supreme deity, was also the god of the sky, Ishtar/Innana was the goddess of fertility, and Enlil was the air god who was also associated with the uncontrolled use of power. The Mesopotamian plain had unpredictable rivers that changed course constantly and often caused large floods. Accordingly, the Sumerian Gilgamesh epics tell the story of a universal flood that the gods inflicted on humanity with little reason and justification.

The Egyptian deities, on the contrary, were relatively sedate in their dealings with humans. This corresponded to the more stable character of the Egyptian natural environment. The Nile floods were much more predictable and beneficial for the Egyptian population, as they enhanced the fertility of the soil. The concept of Maat or Justice shaped the Egyptian religious perception of social relations, which had a much more pronounced emphasis on social ethics and righteous behavior. The Egyptian religion also featured the notion that Osiris would judge souls in the subterranean world, where the deceased would have to render an account for their sins; this idea also contributed to the central importance of ethical principles.

Hebrew monotheism advanced the idea of a universal sovereign deity independent from and superior to nature, and responsible for its creation. Accordingly, one could not approach this deity by manipulating natural forces through the use of magic, which dominated the cultural environment in both Mesopotamia and Egypt. Instead, the Hebrews stressed the notion of a covenant creating an unconditional and exclusive relationship between individual human beings, such as Abraham, and the supreme divinity, and later between God and the people Israel. These notions of an all-embracing divinity and of divine Law gradually established themselves as central in the life of ancient Israel.

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The Hebrews were monotheists who believed in only one god, while the Sumerians and Egyptians believed in many gods (they were polytheists).

While the Jews believed in a god who was omnipotent (all-powerful), omnipresent (all-present), and omniscient (all-seeing), the Sumerians and Egyptians worshiped gods who behaved very much like powerful human beings. These gods didn't shy away from committing murders, engaging in incest, having affairs, and plotting to overthrow rivals. For example, the Egyptian god Seth murdered his brother, Osiris, because he was jealous of him. Osiris, of course, was married to Isis, his sister. Here's more about the story: The Story of Isis and Osiris.

As for Sumerians, the god Enki was forefront in their worship; with his Mesopotamian equivalent, Ea, Enki was the creator of the world. He was also, in turn, a virile god who had an immense sexual appetite, and he enjoyed sexual encounters with various goddesses. There are also Sumerian accounts of Enki and Inana (the goddess of sex and war) battling each other for the right to rule civilization. Here's more about Enki: Enki/Ea, god of wisdom and the creator of the world.

The Hebrews, for their part, saw their god as infallible and holy. He was viewed as a god they could trust in a time of trouble. The Hebrews believed that their god had a plan for their lives and that his laws were to be obeyed for their own good. The Hebrews viewed their god as the epitome of perfection, one who didn't participate in the sometimes violent and lascivious activities the Sumerian and Egyptian gods engaged in.

A major difference between the Sumerian and Egyptian people also lay in how they saw their gods. The Sumerians saw their gods as deities who had to be placated and catered to, while the Egyptians saw their gods as deities who were largely benign and well-disposed towards humans. For the Sumerians, the most important gods largely kept a distance between themselves and humans, so worshipers often relied on intermediary gods to intercede for them. Since Sumerian city-states often had patron gods and goddesses, the Sumerian people often spent inordinate amounts of time placating these gods with sacrifices and prayers.

On the other hand, the Hebrews approached their god without the benefit of intermediaries. Although they had a priestly caste, the Hebrews largely believed in a personal experience with their god.

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