How did the Scientific Revolution change the medieval view of the universe?

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For the medievals, the Bible was the final authority on all things scientific. If the Bible, the word of God, said the earth was 4,000 odd years old, that must be correct. If it said God created the earth in seven days, that was literal truth.

However, as the Renaissance...

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For the medievals, the Bible was the final authority on all things scientific. If the Bible, the word of God, said the earth was 4,000 odd years old, that must be correct. If it said God created the earth in seven days, that was literal truth.

However, as the Renaissance brought classical knowledge back to the fore, and as scholars began using various equipment being invented to directly investigate nature, it became clear that some of what the Bible described was once taken as factual but, in fact, it was metaphorical. In other words, it was poetic. For instance, once explorers began circumnavigating the earth without fall off the edge, people began to realize that Biblical references to the "four corners of the earth" was a poetic way of describing the entire earth, not a literal reference to four corners.

Scholars, usually at that time people with church backgrounds, began to use the empirical method—direct observation or observation using experimentation and machinery—to test whether statements in the Bible were literal or metaphoric. For example, Galileo, who invented the telescope, could tell from his observations that the earth revolved around the sun and not vice versa, as the Bible indicated. He fought a battle with the Church and initially had to recant his ideas, but eventually science broke off as its own discipline. Scientists began using empirical methods not to prove whether or not what the Bible said was literally true, but to explore nature on its own terms. As this happened, scientific knowledge was revised from medieval ideas of accepting received authority to what we understand as the modern scientific method based on experiments that can be verified by other scientists.

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The Scientific Revolution changed the view that people had of the universe, changing it from a medieval view to a more modern one.

Specifically, the Scientific Revolution altered the way people thought of the Earth and the heavens.  They had previously thought that the Earth was the center of the universe and that the heavens revolved around it.  With Copernicus this changed and people came to know that the Earth orbits the sun.

More generally, people came to see the universe as a place that could be understood through science and reason.  They stopped looking for divine or supernatural explanations for things and instead looked for natural laws that could explain the universe.

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