The rise of these things helped big business to arise in at least two ways.
First, inventions and technology allowed some of the first big businesses to get started. For example, the railroad industry was able to grow because of things like cheap steel (due to the invention of the Bessemer process) and new technologies like refrigerated cars, the air brake, and the telegraph.
Second, there were business technologies that made it easier for businesses to organize themselves even as they grew bigger. For example, the typewriter made it much easier for large businesses to keep the kinds of records they needed. The telephone allowed different parts of large firms to communicate with one another easily.
So, one set of innovations helped the big businesses make their products and another set helped them to organize their firms as they became larger.