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One significant way that Republican governments changed politics in the South during Reconstruction was by setting up state-supported schools, which were previously non-existent, with the exception of universities, in the South. They also repealed much of the repressive legislation that had passed during Presidential Reconstruction, including the Black Codes, which had instituted many of the same restrictions on free African-Americans that had existed under slavery. Some other reforms included medical care for the poor, debt protection, and investment in other public institutions, including hospitals, prisons, and more universities. These governments also attracted Northern investment in infrastructure and industry, especially railroads and textile mills. Many of the social reforms were short-lived, however, as white Democrats quickly rolled them back after regaining control of the state governments.
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