How did the problems of the Catholic Church effect medieval European society?
This is a great question, because it recognizes that the church is a vital force in society and that the church shapes society. When it comes to your question, there are many things that can be stated. So, I will limit my answer to three points.
First, the Catholic church influenced Medieval Society in terms of education. Whether people would like to admit it or not, the church has always played a profound role in education. So, for all the criticism, the church has been a powerful force in education.
Second, the Catholic church through some of its abuses caused society to protest eventually. It finally came about in the Protestant Reformation with Martin Luther and the other reformers, such as John Calvin and John Knox.
Third and most profoundly, the church influenced the West in terms of morality. Whether a person is a Christian or not, as long as he or she lives in the West, we can safely say that the Church's view of morality has shaped that person through culture, especially during early modern Western civilization.