How did Napoleon restructure France as he redirected the energies of the revolution?
Napoleon made a number of changes in France following the Revolution. Among his many changes:
- He instituted the Code Napoleon (Napoleonic Code) as the official code of laws of France. This code provided equality before the law for male citizens, protection of private property, and private wealth.
- He also instituted the Bank of France.
- He instituted a political system of mayors, prefects and subprefects all of whom were appointed by him.
- Protestants and Jews were granted religious freedom.
- By the Concordat of 1801, Catholicism became the official religion of France; yet Napoleon retained for himself the right to appoint French bishops and paid French clergy.
Napoleon's changes were not all good. He vigorously restricted freedom of speech and assembly, and reduced the number of public newspapers to four, all of which were little more than propaganda instruments. Women were declared subject to the control of their husbands or fathers, and were not allowed to hold bank accounts or contract in their own names. Also, while away at war, his lieutenant, one Joseph Fouche, instituted a police state replete with secret police and spies who kept people under watch, particularly those who were deemed subversive. Many were arrested and held without charges or trial for long periods.