The Muslim League, formed in 1906, was founded in the context of an emerging Indian nationalist movement that was dominated by Hindu intellectuals. The purpose of the league was to promote Muslim interests and civil rights in the movement. As it became evident that limited self-government would eventually lead to Indian independence, the Muslim League represented the interests of Muslims in the Indian National Congress. The leader of the Muslim League, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, endeavored to create a two-state proposal for the subcontinent, and persuaded the British authorities that such a solution was viable after negotiations for a single-state solution broke down. When the British finally left the subcontinent, they did so under the understanding that Jinnah would govern a separate Pakistan, which he did beginning in 1947. The Muslim League thus helped to provide a foundation for protecting Muslim interests once independence was achieved. It should be noted, however, that neither Muslim nor Hindu leaders were able to control the actions of radicals who slaughtered opposing groups in disputed areas throughout the subcontinent, and hundreds of thousands of Muslim and Hindu Indians lost their lives in the process.