Proctor's death helps to highlight how individuals have a moral and political obligation to speak out when authority structures are wrong. Proctor's death helps to illuminate this. By the end of the drama, it becoes clear that the ruling political body in Salem has erred. The basis of the trials has been undermined with Abigail leaving town and citizens in other towns rebelling against the trials. Salem, itself, has had enough of Parris. The machinery that drove the trials is slowly eroding. Proctor's death brings out how individuals must sacrifice and speak out against that which they know is wrong. The fact that he confesses and then recants his confession helps to show how Proctor does not wish to sacrifice "his name."
In a world in which so many are geared by external ends and means, Proctor is committed to "his name" and what Elizabeth would call "his goodness." Miller's point in having Proctor die is that individuals who are committed to their belief systems must speak out against that which they know is wrong. Protor's death illuminates this. He does not remain silent or take the path of conformity for he knows that such a choice denies "his name," something that he finds morally and ethically unacceptable.
In Act 4, Reverend Hale argues with Elizabeth Proctor. He pushes her to influence her husband in order to get him to sign a confession:
“Life, woman, life is God's most precious gift; no principle, however glorious, may justify the taking of it.”
Hale is using rhetoric he think will work on Elizabeth; he feels guilty for what has happened in Salem and is desperate that more deaths will not happen. However, his emotional appeal underlines the play's internal conflict—is life or integrity more important? Is it worth it to lose your integrity if it saves your life?
Proctor is initially swayed by the idea of life, but in the end his personal integrity wins out:
“Because it is my name! Because I cannot have another in my life! Because I lie and sign myself to lies! Because I am not worth the dust on the feet of them that hang! How may I live without my name?"
Proctor's choice to die rather than to lie is the central focus of the play. Miller wrote The Crucible in response to the McCarthy trials, when Senator Joe McCarthy was investigating Americans for ties to communism. People called before the Senate committee were encouraged to turn over names of people they knew who were communists, just as the characters in Miller's play are pushed to name known witches. Miller himself was investigated and asked to name communists—he refused and was held in contempt. Proctor's conflict between life and integrity closely parallels Miller's own experience and was a lesson to the people of Miller's time—do not let the "witch hunters" win.