When the bloody Civil War ended in 1865, the United States was not yet industrialized. In addition, large-scale immigration to the country both preceded and followed the period of intense industrialization (1870–1900).
After 1850, the Know-Nothing party emerged as an opponent to immigration. Although this political party was short lived, anti-immigrant sentiment would intensify during industrialization.
The railroads were an important part of industrialization. The completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869 was of paramount significance. This railroad linked California to the East Coast. The railway construction was done by Chinese immigrants, who also worked in mining, another component of industrialization.
Workers on the West Coast resented the Chinese workers and blamed them for low wages and other economic problems. The result was the first significant anti-immigration legislation in American history: The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.
Japanese immigrants then began...
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