After the War of the Roses which lasted from 1455 until 1485, Henry Tudor (1457-1509) ascended the throne. However, there were other claimants who continually challenged him; in response, he increased the monarchy's power at the expense of the nobles, chiefly by his bypassing of Parliament. He did so by first creating the Committee of the Privy Council, similar to our concept of an executive's cabinet acting as an executive advisory board. Secondly, he established the Court of the Star Chamber to increase royal involvement in civil and criminal cases. Finally, he imposed forced loans and grants on the nobility, keeping them under his financial control. Additionally, he expanded the English Merchant Marine by the Navigation Acts (1485) which increased trade, which increased tax revenue. Much of the wealth amassed during his reign was sadly dispersed by his son, Henry VIII.