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How did Greece's geography influence the development of city-states, and their way of life?

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The Greek city-states, most famously Athens and Sparta, developed as individual polis instead of organizing into a centralized empire like rival neighbors Persia. A large reason for this political organization is geography.

The terrain in Greece is very mountainous, which makes it notoriously difficult for a centralized government to govern. The Inca, for example, was able to do this by instituting many social and political policies designed to control the people. For Greece, it was easier to stay as individual city-states that engaged in trade and would come to each other's aid in times of crisis.

Another reason we see city-states in Greece is its location in the Mediterranean. Other civilizations at the time were set up on rivers, such as Persia on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Greek city-states did not have to worry about organizing over river systems and teaming up to work agricultural...

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