This answer can be looked at many different ways, because a countries geography makes a huge difference.
1. The Himalayan mountains in the north of India act as a natural buffer from China. This is important, because China to the North has been a powerful country in history. The natural break has caused both nations to be separate and free from war.
2. The Ganges river is one of the longest in the world and has been used to cultivate crops. The Ganges is the 7th longest in the world.
3. The Ganges river becomes all the most important, because India is also home to huge stretches of deserts. The Thar is also the 7th largest desert in the world.
4. Another important point is that India is not landlocked. So, it has had good contact with other people groups and developed a fishing industry.
5. India also have some good natural resources - oil, metals and natural gasses.
In a recent New York Times writing, India's geographic positioning in Asia was discussed to play a major role in its political reality. Neighboring nations such as Pakistan, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka have endured political strife, upheaval, and rebellions. Such realities pose challenging elements to India, a nation seeking to continue to navigate its economic growth and political stability. The looming threat of China, a nation where military conflict was present in 1962 and features an icy relationship even today, makes geographic challenges a very real and viable threat. Add this to the conflict raging in the Jammu- Kashmir region in the North of India, and there seems to be much in the way of concern that is brought on by its geographic location.