How did the Federalists attempt to deny Republicans full control of the government in spite of Jefferson's election in 1800?

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Obtaining and controlling the Judicial Branch was the Federalists method of obtaing some form of control in the national government. However, the main manner is the way in which this federalist court ruled in the milestone cases early on in their reign under the leadership of the Federalist Chief Justice John Marshall. The Marbury vs. Madison ruling established the power of the court. For the first time in US History the a law was declared unconstitutional; Sec. 13of the Juduciary Act was in conflict with the US Constitution. Having ruled in this manner the court established it's power over deciding on the legality of law at an opportune time when the Republicans would be able to pass law/s with relative ease after the "Revolution of 1800" elections. Another case was McCullough vs. Maryland in which John Marshall and the Court ruled over once and for all on the legality of implied powers; ultimately settling the long time argument between Jefferson and Hamilton over the establishment of the National Bank. This too can be viewed as yet another, perhaps last ditch effort, Federalist attempt to keep some of their beliefs and values in the Federal Government. However, most importantly it is important to note that the true destruction of the Federalist Party come from within; the John Adams' treaty with France ending the Quasi War upset Hamilton and split the cohesiveness of the Party. The subsequent death of Hamilton in the duel with Burr in 1803 seemed to finalize the Federalists demise.
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The best known way in which the Federalist tried to do this was through the appointment of the "midnight judges" that led to the Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison.  They also did a couple of other things having to do with the judicial branch.

After being voted out of office, Pres. John Adams tried to increase the number of Federalist judges in important positions.  To do this, he appointed 16 new judges as federal circuit judges and he appointed 50 other men as justices of the peace for the District of Columbia.  In addition to doing this, Adams appointed his own Secretary of State, a man named John Marshall, to be the new Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.  Finally, Congress reduced the size of the Supreme Court from 6 to 5, effective with the next vacancy.  This would preven Jefferson from appointing a successor to the next Justice who left the Court.

In these ways, the Federalists tried to keep control of the judicial branch after they were voted out of office in 1800.


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