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Facing both slave rebellion and the possibility of attack by British troops, Napoleon Bonaparte sent an army of 40,000 European troops to Haiti in 1802. Led by Napoleon's brother-in-law, Charles Leclerc, the French regained control of eastern Hispaniola and won several victories against the Haitian rebels led by Toussaint Louverture. After Louverture was captured during a supposed peace negotiation, he was deported to France, where he died in custody. Louverture's one-time allies, Jean-Jacque Dessalines and Henri Christophe, reunited and fought back against Leclerc's troops. Fighting was bloody, but it was actually the rainy season which eventually defeated the French army. A yellow fever and malaria epidemic virtually wiped out the Napoleon's troops. More than 24,000 French soldiers died, including their leader, Leclerc, while another 8,000 were hospitalized, effectively reducing the French force by more than 75%.
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