The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 knocked neutrality from the minds of even the most dire of isolationists, and in its place a national unity that would motivate and mobilize a nation. Americans young and old were willing to sacrafice just about anything. There were paper drives, rubber drives, metal drives, meatless dinners, mothers in the work force, hollywood actors joining the army, kids giving up their bikes and toys to be melted down and turned into war materials. The 'We Do Our Part' poster programs fostered and encouraged every American to do whatever they could. This massive production of war materials resulted in an employment migration and the growth of industrial cities. Unfortunately the Japanese Americans were not included in this whirlwind of American patriotism. After Pearl Harbor anti-Japanese senitments resulted in Executive Order 9066 which 'relocated' many Japanese Americans against their will to relocation camps. They were held for the duration of the war without due process and when the Supreme Court upheld the government's actions in Korematsu v. U.S. 1944 they in turn justified the gross discrimination of American citizens. For what its worth in 1988 the U.S. government officially apologized and paid reparations to the living survivors.