How do the boys end up on the island in Lord of the Flies?

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William Golding's The Lord of the Flies tells the violent and existentially horrifying tale of the complete breakdown of societal conditioning that occurs when a group of English schoolboys are stranded on an uncharted or simply uninhabited island. This occurs after the boys crash land on the island in the midst of being evacuated from England, which is implied to be too dangerous for civilians due to an unnamed war.

Though it is never specifically said what causes the crash, it can be inferred that the plane was attacked. Piggy says that the pilot ejected the "passenger tube" because there was no way he could land on the island. He also claims to have seen the rest of the plane on fire. Later in the story, we are introduced to "the beast," who turns out to be an ejected pilot who became stuck in a tree. With this in mind, it's clear that the sky above the island was a place where aerial combat was an at least somewhat common occurrence.

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The castaway boys in William Golding's Lord of the Flies end up on the island when their plane crashes, leaving

... the long scar smashed into the jungle.

The boys are being evacuated from England, which is in the midst of a nuclear war, to Australia, where they will presumably be safe from the conflict in Europe. Although the plane may have only had engine trouble, it is almost certain that it was shot down by an enemy plane before crash-landing. A group of boys survive, but the wreckage is washed out to sea, probably taking other boys--dead and possibly alive--with it. No adults survive. Piggy claims in the first chapter that "We was attacked!", and that he saw the "other part of the plane" in flames when he looked from the window.

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