How is science research conducted?
The scientific method is the protocol for conducting scientific research. The method was formalized during the time of Galileo, who is credited with it's development although he approached his question asking with more common-sense freedom than is practicable in contemporary science.
The scientific method was further developed to verify experiment results when two or more scientists produced results at about the same time and, as it is used today, for scientists to corroborate results from experiments performed by other scientists.
Conducting scientific research according to the scientific method requires posing a question of sufficiently narrow scope and doing background research on other scientific or theoretical studies done on the question. Next, you are in a position to form a hypothetical answer to the question, a hypothesis (speculative answer) that you will test out by doing one or more empirical experiments.
The experiments will yield empirical data from observations and data collection of measurements and reactions and such that you will then analyze. Your analysis will allow you to draw logical conclusions based on sound reasoning. The final step is to communicate your results with the scientific community and/or with society at large.