While Rome’s geographical location did help it to become powerful, it did not really cause Rome to become as powerful it did. I would argue that Rome’s culture and its system of government caused it to become powerful.
Rome’s geographical location was important. The city was located at a strategic place in the Italian peninsula. Its local geography allowed it to be relatively easily defended. The Italian peninsula itself is in the middle of the Mediterranean and therefore in a good place for trade. All of this helped Rome to be important.
But this is not sufficient. Rome is not the only place that is well-located. In addition, Rome’s location did not stop being a good one in the 5th century when the Roman Empire was “falling.” Therefore, there must have been something else that made Rome strong and efficient. I would argue that this was Rome’s culture and the government that arose from that culture. The Roman culture was one that encouraged republicanism and a relatively great degree of personal freedom. It was one that tolerated other people’s religions and lifestyles. It was also, apparently, one that lent itself to organization. All of these things allowed Rome to capitalize on its geographical location.
Thus, Rome’s location was important, but it was not sufficient to (on its own) make Rome powerful.