This will depend to some extent on the specific laws of the place where you live, but the general rule is that a road can be built all the way up to your property line.
Typically, the road surface itself will not come up to your property line. This is because there will generally be some amount of shoulder (or a sidewalk if you live in the city) and perhaps a little more area that is called excess right of way. However, there is not generally any requirement that the road be set back from your property line.
To find out about the law in your specific area, contact your city government or your county government (if you live in an unincorporated area).
There are also situations where roads are built over top of property lines on what are known as easements. Two people can have adjoining property lines and by right of easement a third party could lay pavement 10, 15, 20 feet wide right down the center of the property boundary depending what they're easement gives them. This can happen with old farm roads that are not used or little used. It can also happen in older subdivisions where a road may not have actually been constructed...yet. It is not uncommon to see deeds where part of the property line is described as being in the centerline of a road. Even if it may be barely recognizable because of changing times. Then one day a construction crew shows up.
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