How do the characters in To Kill A Mockingbird challenge society's racism?  (specifically Atticus, Jem, and Scout)

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Atticus knows it will be difficult for Tom Robinson to get a fair trial. It is an all white jury. It is the 1930s in a southern town when racism is still a persistent part of the culture. But Atticus is a man of principle. He endeavors to defend Tom...

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Atticus knows it will be difficult for Tom Robinson to get a fair trial. It is an all white jury. It is the 1930s in a southern town when racism is still a persistent part of the culture. But Atticus is a man of principle. He endeavors to defend Tom because it is his job, because it is the right thing to do, and because he certainly thinks Tom is innocent. Atticus attempts to prove Tom's innocence with facts and evidence. The hope is that such overpowering evidence will move the jury to ignore their own racist biases. However, despite Atticus' strong case, the jury does convict Tom. Atticus knew this likelihood going into the trial, but represented Tom anyway. He has intentions of following up with an appeal until Tom is killed. In representing Tom with honesty and integrity, Atticus makes the most public challenge to racism in Maycomb and in the novel. 

Jem and Scout challenge racism in more indirect ways because they are still learning about the world. At the end of Chapter 15, Atticus is guarding the jail (with Tom incarcerated in it). He is accosted by a mob who are out to get Tom. Jem, Scout, and Dill intervene and inadvertently sway the mob to leave. They were protecting Atticus more than Tom, but this could be considered an indirect defense of Tom on their part. During the trial, the children sit with Reverend Sykes. This is the section where the black community sits. They sit there to stay out of sight and because they know Reverend Sykes. But it is symbolic and suggests they are sitting in solidarity with the black community. 

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