Candide has been indoctrinated by the kingdom's philosopher "Pangloss" before he is expelled for loving the Princess Cunegonde from the fictional kingdom of Westphalia. His teachings in the garden of the kingdom would be considered the most important as they set up the rest of the ironic contrast. Pangloss represents a pre-Enlightenment philosopher "Leibniz", who preached about the importance of "Optimism", which Voltaire sought to attack though his satire. Candide overcomes everything from losing his princess, brutal beatings, syphilis, an "auto-da-fe", drowning, and attacks--all in his mind still belonging to the "best of all possible worlds". In Candide's words, everything can only be for the best, despite that he encounters trouble after trouble--most often life threatening. There are no redeeming qualities in any of the horrible events that Candide encounters, and thus Voltaire is able to ironically show that nothing could be the best in Candide's world, despite that he continues to think so. The short novel is almost comical--juxtaposing the terrible and the comic so as to further emphasize the ludicrous nature of Leibnizian philosophy.